The main land systems are food crops and livestock. The rain-forest in Ghana is located in the tropical parts of Ghana in the South westerns region. relatively short trees with shrub and scrub undergrowth. Vigne 1936; Taylor 1952; Baker 1962) and a This comprises the Guinea Savannah and Sudan Savannah. Climate change in Ghana will have wide-reaching impacts on the country.Because the sits at the intersection of three hydro-climatic zones, the climate of Ghana is expected to become incredibly variable. This climate allows a growing season of 180-200 days. The trees are mainly hardwood and the area that surrounds the rain-forest is actually more fertile. This is the zone that separates the forest and the Savannah. Leave your email to receive our newsletter, Get the news that matters from one of the leading news sites in Ghana, Drop your mail and be the first to get fresh news, Invention of cocoa biofuel might be Ghana's biggest invention. Movements have been established before to discourage deforestation because without trees then there is no rain. It accounts for nearly half of the total land area The less disturbed area of the Guinea Savannah ecosystem is dominated by relatively short trees with shrub and scrub undergrowth. The region occupies about 62% of the Guinea savanna ecological zone (147 900 km −2) of Ghana (Raamsdonk et al. During the major season, the length of growing is 150-160 and just like the rain-forest zone, the dominant land use system is forest and plantains. of the country. This Savannah is manly characterized by convectional rainfall due to the nearness to the water body. With good agronomic practices, improved maize varieties have the potential to produce 4–6 t/ha of grain. R. Moylan Gambles** **Windings, Whitchurch Hill, Reading, England. Actually this is the longest period of growing in the whole of Ghana’s climate. and extent of grass, herbs and scrub undergrowth in most cases depends on the (insert a link to In the adjacent Open Guinea Savanna (OGS) ecoregion, farmlands are expanding rapidly into the wooded savannas. 26, No. duration and decreases northwards. Typical maize grain yield from farmers’ fields in the northern Guinea savanna zone is estimated at 1.2 t/ha as against a national average yield of 1.5 t/ha (SRID, MOFA, 2007). x. Map: Guinea Savannah . The vegetation is mainly isolated short trees, is a multipurpose tree species indigenous to the Sudano Sahelian zone of Africa and occurs as the most abundant economic tree species in northern Ghana. The rain-forests are home to most of the medicinal herbs that both people and animals take to heal. The staple food for most Ghanaians is plantain and even in the coastal region the roots grow very well too. The Sudan Savannah ecosystem is located to In the Guinea savanna zone of Ghana, farmers prepare the land by using hand hoe or by ploughing with tractors or drought animals. This means that farmers have adequate time to prepare their land, and plant when there is rainfall. The most dominant type of crops is the plantain and sorghum, millet among others. Most farmers plant roots such as arrowroot and plantains. The rain-forest experiences high rainfall of up to 22000 mm. Assessing the Performance of Sorghum Varieties in the Guinea Savanna Zone of Ghana S. Lamptey1, G. Nyarko 1, A. Falon 2and S. Yeboah 1Faculty of Agriculture, University for Development studies Most maize in developing countries is produced That aside, the deciduous forest are have diverse tree species and also soil types. It receives an annual rainfall of 1200mm, which is quite fair as compared to the forest and the Savannah. The less disturbed area of the Guinea Savannah ecosystem is dominated by The main crops that grow in this area are millet sorghum and also cow-peas. Odonata from the Guinea Savanna Zone in Ghana. This climate allows a growing season of 180-200 days. Ghana after the high forest. The land is mostly used for annual food crops like maize and it is also very suitable for livestock. West Region of Ghana which lies within the Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zone. transition and coastal savannah zones make up the southern half of the country. The major season has 100-110. Ghana is situated on the West Coast of Africa, bound by latitudes 4° 44’ and 11° 11’ 01°12’E and 03° 11’ W and covering a total land area of 238,530 square kilometers. Guinea Savanna zone of Ghana Latif Iddrisu Nasare1*, Peter K. Kwapong2 and Dzigbodi Adzo Doke3 Abstract Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. The Dahomey Gapis a region of Togo and Benin where the forest-savan… Ecology focuses on the different types of climate. 1, pp. The characteristic feature of Pre- All the agro ecological zones in have specific characteristics that define them. The main food crops that are growing in the season are roots and maize. The Guinea Savannah is the most dominant climate in Ghana. Search for more papers by this author. With about 40% of all animal species, the rain-forests play a great role in sustaining the flora and fauna. Evaluation of Suitability of Some Soils in the Forest-Savanna Transition and the Guinea Savanna Zones of Ghana for Maize Production Nketia, K. A 1., Adjadeh, T.A 2*. This floristic characteristic is maintained by the mail. The Share this page. The ecology of a particular region determines what can grow there. The northern half of the country is mainly Guinea Savanna, this being the agro-ecological zone of the three northern Administrative regions – However, yields are low, rarely exceeding 600 kg ha−1, prompting the need to evaluate responses of grain legumes to P fertilizer applications for two seasons. In Ghana, agriculture contributes to 28% of the annual gross domestic product. Generally the northern part of Ghana is characterized with less rainfall as compared to the southern part. Despite significantly lower yields in the African countries, farm-level unit production costs in Mozambique, Nigeria, and Zambia are comparable to or lower than those in the Brazilian Cerrado and in northeast Thailand, thanks to very low labor costs and limited use of purchased inputs.2 Although low unit-production costs help to make African producers competitive in the short run, they do not represent a sustainable path out of p… The main crops that grow in this region are millet, sorghum and cow-peas. The Sudan Savannah is located on the top most north eastern area of Ghana. The Guinea Savannah ecosystem in Ghana starts from the northern limit of the forest zone emerging out of the dry semideciduous forest (fire zone subtype). The vegetation map of Ghana clearly shows the kind of vegetation that grows in each part of the country. The zone is partitioned into a inner zone (DSD(IZ)) and a fire zone (DSD(FZ)). The Guinea Savannah ecosystem These agro-ecological zones have a bimodal equatorial rainfall pattern, allowing for two annual growing seasons (major and minor growing seasons) (Table 1). Wind of change blows as NDC recaptures 15 major parliamentary seats from NPP; mo... NPP claims victory in 2020 presidential and parliamentary elections, Election 2020: Yaw Buaben Asamoah, other NPP big-wigs lose their seats to NDC candidates, It's a flip flop - Otchere-Darko laughs at NDC's claim of snatching 36 NPP seats, Elections 2020: Mahama in pole position to claim first-round victory - NDC, Election 2020: Fantana's mum, Dorcas Toffey recaptures Jomoro seat for NDC, Boot for boot: Mahama and Akufo-Addo both poll little over 25,000 votes in 145 polling stations; photo drops, Election 2020: Massive jubilation as exclusive video from NPP's strongroom pops up, Ghana Facts Life Hacks DIYS and Practical Tips. Deciduous forest region also has very fertile soils that favor the growth of food crops. This is because the Guinea Savannah is near the coastal area. The area has a mono-modal rainfall pattern of about 5–6 months from May to October with maximum occurrence in August and September. Farmers also get to do farming because this weather has shifts such that they change over a period of time. The animals, cows reared in this area are used for dairy and also beef. These agro-ecological zones have a Ecological zones in Ghana have are different and they are five of them. The deciduous region covers land of 3% of the total area. Ghana falls within two of the in Ghana starts from the northern limit of the forest zone emerging out of the savannah ecosystems in West Africa. Department of Botany, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana I. after the high forest. This region has very rich soils that are a good base for such crops. 2008).It is characterised by fire and drought-resistant woody species such as Vitellaria paradoxa, Combretum spp, Burkea africana, and Isoberlinia doka with common grasses such as Andropogon, Heteropogon and Hyparrhenia spp.A third of natural pastures (71% of 235 000 km −2) in … The northern part is made of the Guinea Savannah and Sudan Savannah. Every crop is specific of the Agro ecological zone. 2, pp. Back to story. This type characterizes the transition between the Rainforest and Guinea Savanna in Ghana. In the transition zone, the rainfall in Ghana has shifts because of the mixed weather. Strategies for Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity in Ghana, Diversities in Ghana's Biological Resources, Legislation on Biodiversity Conservation in Ghana, Biodiversity conservation projects in Ghana, Public Awareness Activities Related Biodiversity Conservation in Ghana. These The Savannah is a very important part in the food web. This has allowed the agricultural sector to grow consistently. The five agro-ecological zones in Ghana are indicated by the Food and Agriculture organizations. Seasonal changes in pasture biomass and grazing behaviour of cattle in the Guinea Savanna agroecological zone of Ghana. The agro ecological zones in Ghana have been consistent over the years. The Guinea Savannah is the most dominant climate in Ghana. Gaertn.) Savanna zones, as a whole, are characterized by trade winds and monsoons, with a predominance of dry tropical air in the winter and humid equatorial air in the summer. are the Guinea Savannah and Sudan Savannah. This study was conducted to characterize, evaluate and determine the phenotypic as well as genetic relatedness of cotton genotypes utilizing both morphological and molecular markers. Farmers in this area enjoy the benefit of planting on season and off season due to the rain patterns. The duration of the rainy season decreases, from eight or nine months to two or three months, as … savannah ecosystem is the second most important terrestrial habitat in Ghana The district falls within the Guinea Savanna vegetation zone of northern Ghana, with a single-peak, erratic rainfall pattern, increasing rapidly from April, peaking in August-September, then sharply decreasing during October, and ranging between ~600 to ~1,000 mm annually on average . This is less as compared to the transition zone. The minor season has 50 major days of planting. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of carbon stocks of different soil fractions from the dominant tree species (Vitellaria paradoxa) of three forest reserves in the Guinea savanna of Ghana as well as the tree and non-tree carbon stocks. The agriculture also has contributed to employment in Ghana. This region is characterized with rainfall of approximately 1000mm annually. The soils and the rains are a good combination for crops to grow such as roots and plantain. This depends on several factors like weather and human activities which have a direct influence on the weather changes. The Sudan Savannah is one of the distinct Ghana regions that experience relatively high rainfall. This is one of the ecological zones in Ghana that offer the longest growing period. It is called a transition zone because it shares its climate with the Savannah. In most cases a rain-forest has little to no undergrowth due to the poor penetration of sunlight because of the canopy formed by the trees. The transition zone mainly supports annual food crops and also crops like maize, roots and also plantain. It covers 63% of the total area. ( 2007 ) categorization. Search for more papers by this author. Based on a 20-year baseline climate observation, it is forecasted that maize and other cereal crop yields will reduce by 7% by 2050. The experiment was conducted in the Nyankpala campus to explore the potential of plant biochar as growth media for raising tree seedlings. (2018). Weather is the climatic condition of an area for some time, like a day while climate is the general weather for a very long period of time like more than thirty years. Journal of Crop Improvement: Vol. dry semideciduous forest (fire zone subtype). Most importantly, the coastal region offers sandy beaches that gives room for tourists both local and international all year round. In central Ghana, the Main, Eastern, and Central Transitional Zones (MTZ, CTZ, and ETZ) share common elements of a transitional climate with two rainy seasons and transitional forest-savanna vegetation. 400 million hectares of Guinea Savannah land ripe for commercial farming; share. This is a very good use of land considering the climate. Michael Asante, Benjamin Dzorgbenyui Kofi Ahiabor, Williams K. Atakora, " Growth, Nodulation, and Yield Responses of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as Influenced by Combined Application of Rhizobium Inoculant and Phosphorus in the Guinea Savanna Zone of Ghana ", International Journal of Agronomy, vol. The deciduous forest receives rainfall of 1500mm annually. The plantain is a basic food crop in Ghana and this area supports its growth. Tree planting has been encouraged in institutions like schools, and people have come together to ensure that such initiatives are followed to the letter. This poses a challenge in accessing fertile soil for tree nurseries in Northern Ghana. Desertification, climate variability and food security are closely linked through drought, land cover changes, and climate and biological feedbacks. The Guinea Savannah receives rainfall of 1100mm annually. And shrubs are part of the vegetation. FOLLOW US ON. The edible oil (shea butter) The coastal area is influenced by the wind that comes from the ocean. The grasses in the Savannah are very nutritious to the livestock. The density decreased average annual rainfall and recurrent annual bush fires. The southern region is mostly made of the high rain forest and coastal Savannah. 1CSIR-Soil Research Institute, Academy Post Office, Kwadaso Kumasi 2Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra *Corresponding author; tadjadeh@ug.edu.gh The Sudan Savannah has all these characteristics and people herd all year round. Adrian G. Marshall* *Department of Zoology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland. shrub and scrub undergrowth. Every country has its ecological zones and most importantly it helps to determine type of crops that can grow in the different regions of the country. Like this name suggests, the coastal region generally experiences less rainfall of 800mm annually. Rainfall is uni-modal The two communities are in high-risk areas, which will likely suffer most from a changing climate. The Savannah Zone Agricultural Productivity Improvement Project (SAZAPIP) aims at transforming agricultural value chains for food and nutrition security, job and wealth creation in the Northern Savannah Zone of Ghana. The Guinea and Sudan Savanna zones are both characterized by a unimodal rainfall regime lasting from April to October, although mean annual rainfall is higher in the Guinea Savanna zone (1000-1200 mm), than in the Sudan Savanna (900-1000 mm) The period between November and March is dry and characterized by the INTRODUCTION Though a fairly extensive literature relating to the Guinea savanna zone in Africa exists, practically nothing has been written about this vegetation type in Ghana, with the exception of a few general accounts (e.g. A good planting medium is required for raising tree seedlings in the nursery, however Guinea savanna soils are generally poor in nitrogen and organic matter. vegetation map of Ghana). Total annual rainfall ranges from 780 mm in the dry eastern coastal belt to … As stated earlier because weather patterns change and they are influenced by the climate of a particular place. The rain-forests produce high quality hardwoods that are very important in textiles. The deciduous forest region is made up of trees that shed their leaves at particular seasons. Ecology is influenced by various characteristics such as weather patterns, climate, rainfall and many more. Animals that roam the New Guinea savanna Forty-three mammal species, including 4 small marsupials, live in this ecosystem: the Papuan planigale (Planigale novaeguineae), bronze quoll (a marsupial “cat”, Dasyurus spartacus), chestnut dunnart (a small marsupial, Sminthopsis archeri), and dusky pademelon (a small, kangaroo-like animal, Thylogale brunii). the savannah ecosystem is the dominance of relatively short trees with grass, 87-100. 35, No. vegetation map of Ghana). Worldwide Offices. Rice Influence on Grain Yield of Maize in Maize/Rice Mixture in the Northern Guinea Savanna Zone of Ghana. and Adiku, S. G. K2. There are six agro-ecological zones in Ghana: Sudan Savannah, Guinea Savannah, Coastal Savannah, Forest/Savannah transitional zone, Deciduous Forest zone and the Rain Forest zone. The Guinean forest-savanna mosaic covers an area of 673,600 square kilometers (260,100 sq mi), extending from western Senegal to eastern Nigeria, and including portions of Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin. The trees bloom over time and once the weather changes then the trees shed their leaves. The palm trees are also a defining characteristic in the coast and palm oil is also very dominant in Ghana. The coastal region in Ghana is part of the capital city Accra and due to the high population in this region, agriculture is emphasized. The staple food crop of most Ghanaians has been influenced by the climatic patterns in the country. The main food crops grown in this region are sorghum and maize. The Guinea and Sudan Savannah make up the northern half of Ghana. The savannah ecosystem is the next most important terrestrial habitat in The rainfall is mostly seasonal and the people at this region get the advantage of herding livestock. live_help. The agro ecological zones are named depending on their rainfall, soils, and the general crops that are found in the region. The region that has this particular climate experiences warm and moist summers and cool winters. The rain-forest is made up of trees that are home to most wild animals. Below are the various agro ecological zones in Ghana, which includes their specific characteristics; The inter tropical convergence zone is the region responsible for the rain-forests. The Cameroon Highlands of eastern Nigeria and Cameroon separate the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic from the Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic, which lies to the east. The length of growing in this area is 150-160. Actually this is the longest period of … This region is mainly meant for annual food crops. Main characteristics: 1. precipitation: 1100 - 1200 mm, with one distinctive dry season 2. typical plant species: a) DSD(IZ): Milicia excelsa (name in Ghana: Odum) 3. However there has been a change in weather due to global warming as a result of human activities. and it is the main determining environmental element, with relatively short Conducting P studies is critical to help farmers adopt economic-based In Ghana, only few studies have documented these linkages. (2012). This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. 101-108. in Ghana. That aside, people are in a better position to determine the soil types and also come up with different ways of ensuring that there is adequate rainfall. scrub and short grass undergrowth. A field trial was carried out at CSIR-SARI Station, Nyankpala, Ghana to evaluate 90 genotypes of cotton in an Augmented Randomised Incomplete Block Design (ARIBD). African Journal of Range & Forage Science: Vol. When the soil is subjected to intensive and repeated tillage, it becomes susceptible to high run-off and soil erosion rates, and soil deterioration. The Coastal Savannah is the last agro ecological region in Ghana. (insert a link to the north of the Guinea Savanna. A rain-forest has characteristics like high rainfall throughout the year. The rain-forests also help in oxygen turnover, by taking in the excess carbon IV oxide from the air and releasing oxygen. Table 2 Insect pollinator dependency of shea kernel yield (kg) in the Guinea savanna zone of Ghana Full size table The percentage pollinator dependence recorded in this study suggests that V. paradoxa is a high pollinator-dependent species based on Klein et al. level and extent of disturbances. 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